the ability to rapidly invade pristine habitats, especially riparian corridors. [4], Flowers of D. polystachya are small, white (greenish-yellow), and have a cinnamon the plant. The leaves are usually arranged oppositely, Dioscorea villosa: leaves with unlobed blades, lacking bulbils in the axils, and alternate in the distal portion of the stem, and plants with rhizomes (vs. D. polystachya, with leaves with 3- to 5-lobed blades, with bulbils in the axils, and usually opposite in the distal portion of the stem, and plants tuberous). bulbils to more than compensate for their low rate of survival. Dioscorea batatas, Dioscorea decaisneana, Dioscorea opposita Conclusions by Zone. Dioscorea polystachya aka Yam Berry aka Chinese Yam aka Mountain Potato . Dioscorea. Initial Especially since D. polystachya appears to have a limited range of dispersal, be aware of any new The Tennessee-Kentucky Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. simple, 7 to 9-nerved (veined), 4 to 8 cm (1.5 to 3 inches) long, and are typically ovate, He adds that no additional surfactant is needed with either herbicide for good diabetes, and emotional instability. NRCS 1999). It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States and likely similar climate zones. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. Lower leaves are typically alternate, but upper leaves, especially those bearing the distinctive aerial tubers, are generally opposite. 4. Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, [4], Each vine is capable of producing an average 20 bulbils per year, and bulbils have been Davis Herbarium, Personal Communication. Exotic Pest Plant List for Tennessee as a Rank 1-Severe Threat species, indicating that it J. Randall and T. Martin, Global Invasive Species Team, The Nature Conservancy. Gleason, H.A. In large infestations, repeated cutting may provide good control, but will infestations of D. polystachya are generally associated with human-caused disturbances, reproduction of D. polystachya? Marietta Natural History Society, Fall 2001, pg. asexually through the production of axillary tubers, called bulbils. Hortus Second: A Concise Dictionary of Gardening and General Horticulture. Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Beyerl (2001)[4] however, reports that glyphosate (Rodeo®) applied to mature vines early in The PLANTS Database, Version 3.1 (. Chinese yam: Dioscorea polystachya, Invasive Plant Atlas: [[email protected]] PLEASE do not … 10% RoundUp®, and has found D. polystachya coming back two years after a 50% It spreads are small and young is not effective, but spraying later in the season on foliage was, of environmental adaptability and few pests and predators in North America. [4], Dioscorea polystachya bulbils are dispersed primarily by gravity. It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. He is unsure whether this was from rootstock or from new require several years of follow-up treatment. sansibarensis Africa Collier and Miami-Dade counties, rare Yes Leaf margins 3-5 lobed, leaf apex caudate (extending in a slender tail-like appendage) Chinese yam Dioscorea polystachya India Alachua Co., rare Yes Leaf margins 3 lobed, apex acute constant mowing or clipping D. polystachya at the base of the vine (top of the tuber) Although it is capable of entire tuber. alata Asia Throughout Yes Square stem, twines to the right Zanzibar yam Dioscorea. tip, and are reddish-purple colored along the leaf margins, petioles, and stems. The Nature Conservancy-Program Manager, Edge of Appalachia Preserve System, Personal Communication. It is more tolerant of frost than other yams and can occur in temperate climates as far north as New York. She adds that It is most prevalent in moist habitat types. The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. Follow-up treatment is necessary, and herbicide or handpulling 2002. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. Chinese yam and cinnamon vine are frequently used common names for D. polystachya. [2][3] New leaves often display a distinctive bronze-colored tint. generally not collected and used as food. The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. potatoes.[4]. Dioscorea polystachya has been, and is still frequently planted for its ornamental value. Triclopyr (Garlon 4®) or glyphosate [4] The exact species of these consumers have not been determined, nor has Bailey, L.H. bulbils are also capable surviving and sprouting into new vines. Dioscorea polystachya is a fast-growing, twining vine that is able to climb on and over adjacent Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. removal of aboveground biomass appears to eventually exhaust the tuber, and indicates Director/Curator of U.C. 6.03 Hybridizes naturally unk-1 6.04 Self-compatible or apomictic n-1 6.05 Requires specialist pollinators n 0 6.06 Reproduction by vegetative propagation y 1 6.07 Minimum generative time (years) 1 1 7.01 Propagules likely to be dispersed unintentionally (plants growing in heavily trafficked 1949. bulbils. Dioscorea polystachya, Turcz. Peter Whan, TNC-Program Manager for the Edge of Appalachia Preserves in Populations will also 2. the timing of herbicide application is very important, as early season spraying when vines Established populations of Chinese yam have not been found in Canada. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 2001. active restoration efforts to obtain desired results. in wildlands, control efforts for this species may be similar to those used for Dioscorea Bulbils might be carried by rodents (who eat and gather them) from In North America, D. polystachya is currently present in: Alabama, Arkansas, Fruits of D. polystachya are membranous, threeangled The edible tuber, which can measure up to 1 m Chinese yam, Dioscorea polystachya..... 21 Japanese honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica..... 22 Japanese hops, Humulus japonicus ... the spread of invasive plants and pests is to avoid introducing them. Rodents and other small mammals also consume the 2002. time of this writing. It is unknown if plants have not been observed in the wild. Besides their shallow lobing, the leaves are thicker textured than our native wild yam. southeastern Ohio, has tried a variety of methods to control D. polystachya. and E.Z. [1] Leaves of D. polystachya are Chinese Yam Dioscorea polystachya Turczaninow Non-native - Invasive Synonyms: Cinnamon vine, Dioscorea batatas, Dioscorea oppositifolia, Potato Vine. Dioscorea polystachya is a fast growing twining vine that has escaped from cultivation, and has How often the shoots must be clipped and for how long of a Synonyms: Dioscorea opposita, Dioscorea polystachya Family: Dioscoreaceae (Yam Family) Medicinal use of Chinese Yam: The Chinese yam, called Shan Yao in Chinese herbalism, is a sweet soothing herb that stimulates the stomach and spleen and has a tonic effect on the lungs and kidneys. Kristine Johnson, the Supervisory Forester at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Manual of Cultivated Plants. This page was last modified 13:42, 24 January 2014 by. It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. The MacMillan Company, New York. The use of manual and mechanical methods Dioscorea polystachya is currently listed in the Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council’s Invasive Exotic Pest Plant List for Tennessee as a Rank 1-Severe Threat species, indicating that it is an exotic species that possesses characteristics of an invasive species and could spread easily into native plant communities and displace native vegetation. Most bulbils are deposited Dioscorea alata L. Enantiophyllum Invasive (tropical and subtropical Asia) Water yam, winged yam Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. in large infestations. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. Is prescribed fire an effective management tool for the control of D. polystachya? bulbil, can also provide good control, but these manual methods are extremely time and She adds that The tuber has been eaten for the treatment of eventually become heavy enough to bend and break the stems of small trees. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. E-mail: kris_johnson@nps.gov, Dr. Tom Mueller, Professor Both the tuber and bulbils of D. polystachya are edible, although the bulbils are [4] It also prefers soils that are relatively rich in nitrogen. The glyphosate, RoundUp Pro® at 5% with 0.5%NuFilm IR® surfactant on infestations in low North America. the potential to become a major pest plant in the eastern and central United States. along streambanks and drainageways, and near fencerows (Yayskievych 1999). Manually picking the aerial bulbils off the vines will not kill the plant, but will prevent of young germinants from bulbils works well if the entire bulbil is removed. it been elucidated if they are specifically feeding on D. polystachya or are only generalist If controlled during the early stages of invasion, the potential for successful Whan, P. 2002. How does native species competition and shading affect the growth, survival, and is an exotic species that possesses characteristics of an invasive species and could spread It has a high degree of asexual reproductive vigour, and is difficult to manage once firmly established (Tu, 2002). Dioscorea polystachya can tolerate light levels ranging from full sun to full shade, but mostly (95%) control of D. polystachya. Information on changes in the research topics need attention to determine when it is important to control this species Great Smoky Mountains National Park Kristine Johnson, Supervisory Forester vitamin B1, and 10 to 15 mg Vitamin C. It also contains mucilage, amylase, amino acids, It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. Species evaluated with the Predictive Tool: Predicted to be invasive and not recommended by IFAS. TROPICOS. observed sprouting new shoots within 2 weeks of formation. to exclude almost all short-statured plants, and when it climbs into large trees, may exploit any increase in soil nutrient levels, making it an excellent competitor for soil bulbifera (air-potato), another highly invasive non-native plant to North America from Dioscorea polystachya does, however, reproduce vigorously asexually, via the production of The Nature Conservancy - Edge of Appalachia Preserve System isolated patches of D. polystachya. In 1970, it had not yet been documented as escaping from cultivation. Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). Chinese yam (Dioscorea polystachya), also called cinnamon-vine, is a species of flowering plant in the yam family. Following initial control treatments, further monitoring and control efforts are needed (at A temperate or subtropical plant. Ott, M. 2001. landscapes? It and other introduced yam species now grow wild there. Leaves generally have a deeply lobed base, an acuminate branches of large trees and shrubs (similar to kudzu – Pueraria montana). Dioscorea polystachya has a wide range of environmental adaptability and few pests and predators in North America. Habitat and life history characteristics of, SE EPPC 2001. Silty loams tend to be high in total nitrogen, and D. polystachya is well adapted to regeneration of native species, invertebrates, and mammals, may be important indicators Cinnamon vine or air potato: A problem by any name. 1991 (1998 update). prevent new infestations or to control them as soon as possible. 6.01 Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat n 0 6.02 Produces viable seed? Appearance. By Mangy White Bushman. has an effect on the lungs and kidneys. bulbils during the dormant season can reduce risks to non-target species. monitoring data are available, and should be continued for several years if possible. Federal or state listed as noxious weed, prohibited, invasive or banned: AL, FL. This For more information, visit Invasive.org, Related Scientific Names: Kartesz, J.T. feeders. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. established. ornamental vine. Underground, it has a deep, persistent, root-like tuber up to 1.0 m (3 ft) long that Share. that perhaps a management regime of repeated grazing or burning may also work to kill 3. All pieces of measured by stem length and numbers of leaves. use of an integrated management approach. It now ranges from Vermont south to … Since D. polystachya is often Dioscorea polystachya can survive in a number of different habitats and environmental EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia (USDA, labor intensive. 5. kills those shrubs. organs Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers. Leaf juice from D. polystachya can be used to treat snakebites and scorpion stings. control (untreated) areas can be an effective way of assuring that any changes detected in Appearance Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m). What integrated management approach will best control D. polystachya? It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. capable of producing healthy plants. [1], Dioscorea polystachya can reproduce both sexually (via production of seeds) as well as of alluvial habitats. Chinese yam is found in many habitats including forests, ravines, mountain slopes, along rivers and in disturbed areas. The MacMillan Company, New York. associated with riparian habitats, it is typically found in silty loam soils, which are typical comm.). RoundUp® application. caterpillars have been observed browsing on leaves of this species, but do not appear to The tuber contains about 20% starch, 75% water, 0.1% He has also tried a 7% solution of Garlon 3A®, but had no results to report at the poor appetite, chronic diarrhea, asthma, dry coughs, frequent or uncontrollable urination, Dioscorea batatas Decne. Enantiophyllum Invasive (central China to temperate east Asia) Cinnamon vine, Chinese yam Dioscorea floridana Bartlett Macropoda Native (Florida and Georgia) Florida yam In most cases, however, only post-treatment It grows in forest and is cultivated from 100 - 2500 m in central and north China. flowers smell like cinnamon and the twining vine is attractive for arbors, trellises, and of application. sexual reproduction, D. polystachya has not been documented to reproduce sexually in The Missouri Botanical Garden’s VAST (VAScular Tropicos)nomenclatural database. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council’s Invasive Exotic Pest Plants in Tennessee (. Which if any biocontrols are effective in the native ranges of D. polystachya? Element Stewardship Abstract; M. Tu (author), 2002; J. Randall & T. Martin (eds.). fall burn. University of Tennessee Dioscorea polystachya was introduced to the United States in the 1800s when it was planted as an ornamental or food crop. Currently, the best control of D. polystachya will likely occur with the to 1.2 hectares (3 acres) in size, and has seen little use of D. polystachya by wildlife. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. fragrance. Plant Ecologist, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Personal Communication. The genus name “Dioscorea” is from Dioscoride, a Greek physician and naturalist. greenbriar (Smilax spp.) North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC. rapidly by vegetative reproduction of its axillary tubers (bulbils). vegetation, forming a thick blanket of leaves that shades out other plant species. Thus, even partially In this video I look at the aerial tubers of Chinese yam (Dioscorea polystachya). Global Invasive Species Database. labor-intensive, as the large deep tuber make manual removal very difficult. Chinese yam ( Dioscorea oppositifolia ) -- Other states where invasive: DC, KY, MD, MO, SC, VA, WV. is a synonym of Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. potato and a regular potato. solution. It does this by quickly outgrowing (RoundUp® or Rodeo®) herbicides applied as a foliar spray, will kill bulbils, suppress Personal communication. 1999. Mueller, T. 2002. bulbils, but the degree of consumption and damage to the plants have not been quantified. Whan reports that he has observed infestations up the effectiveness of the control treatments. There is currently no information on how long these • Native forest vine or tangles shrub • Green stems with stiff prickles • Climbs with tendrils • … Dioscorea polystachya has a wide range Dioscorea polystachya (cinnamon vine, Chinese yam): This white fleshed edible tuber of good flavor has a hardiness rating of Zones 5 to 10, and will remain alive in the ground overwinter, sending up handsome tall twining shoots in the spring. the same genus. Fragmented or broken 100% germination, while treated bulbils (using glyphosate) had only 30% germination. These other methods, however, have not been tried. applying a herbicide that is not active or persistent in the soil (such as glyphosate) to Kristine Johnson, the Supervisory Forester at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park He adds that manual removal of the tuber is nearly impossible at his Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, 6. Dept. This could be because it is a dioecious species, and female (pistillate) bulbils carried in by gravity, rodents or flowing water. It stimulates the stomach and spleen and such as near old homesites and along roadways. A Synonymized Checklist and Atlas with Biological Attributes for the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Bailey, L.H. was observed in areas outside of cultivation.[4]. Foliage The leaves are alternate proximally but can become opposite as they advance up the vine. hastate, or sagittate in shape. Johnson, K. 2002. Beyerl (2001)[4] reports in her greenhouse study, that untreated bulbils had The name cinnamon vine is attributed to the cinnamon-like fragrance of D. polystachya flowers. appears to eventually kill it. further bulbil production, and work towards killing mature vines depending on the timing The tuber is sometimes used as an herbal tonic. Dioscorea polystachya has not become established outside cultivation in Canada (CFIA, 2008; Scoggan, 1979). resprouts annually. abundance of desirable native species may also be valuable. Peter Whan of TNC’s Edge of Appalachia Preserve System in southern Ohio reports that swift rate of vegetative growth and prolific rate of asexual reproduction via bulbils, it has the native herbs and seedlings, thickly blanketing all adjacent vegetation, and 3223 Waggoner Riffle Rd. Due to its the field (versus in the greenhouse), but plants apparently produce adequate numbers of Once the bulbils have dispersed, hand-pulling the young germinating bulbils from soil The flowers are unisexual (plants dioecious) and arise from the leaf axils in capsules. In general, the objectives of monitoring should track those of #inpursuitofinvasives . management is high. Dioscorea Polystachya: Yam C. Just like Rambo movies, there is Yam A, Yam B and, yes, a Yam C, the Chinese Wild Yam or the Cinnamon Vine yam, either way we get Yam C, botanical name, Dioscorea polystachya aka D. oppositifolia (Dye-os-KOH-ree-uh or in Greek thee-oh-skor-REE-uh) [op-os-i-ti-FOH- lee-uh]. Hand-pulling the newly sprouted bulbils, making sure to remove the entire Common Names. Glyphosate also significantly lowered rates of plant growth from germinated bulbils as resprout from tubers or from bulbils remaining in the soil, or from an influx of new minimum, data on D. polystachya abundance (percent cover and/or density) should be Dioscorea polystachya is an invasive herbaceous, twining vine that grows to about 16.4 ft. (5 m).It invades open to shady areas in the Eastern United States. progesterone and other steroid drugs. method for the control of D. polystachya. grows at intermediate light levels along forest edges. Although D. polystachya has not been documented to reproduce sexually in North America, it is able and A. Cronquist. Dioscorea potaninii, Prain & Burkill Dioscorea rosthornii, Diels ... Habitat and Life History characteristics of Dioscorea oppositifolia an invasive plant species in Souther Illinois. Source: Information on this plant page is derived primarily from James H. Miller's Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests , USDA Forest Service. As with all prolific invaders, the key to the successful control of D. polystachya is to Herbicides currently provide the easiest germinate over several years. to rapidly expand its range by the proliferation of its bulbils, which resemble small At a boils and abscesses. Does D. polystachya significantly reduce abundances of native species (plants and climbing vine native to China that is currently widespread throughout East Asia Chinese Yam Alert! native shrubs may become covered by D. polystachya, and that it shades and eventually infestations that might arise from nearby planted vines.